District Court - Most people experience the court system through the District Court. Cases heard here include motor vehicle (traffic) and boating violations and other misdemeanors and specified felonies, domestic violence and peace order petitions, landlord-tenant disputes, small claims and other civil cases involving limited dollar amounts, and replevin (recovery of wrongfully taken or detained goods). Each county and the City of Baltimore has at least one District Court location. A case in the District Court is argued before a judge only: there are no jury trials in District Court.
Circuit Court – Generally handles more serious criminal cases, major civil cases, including juvenile and other family law cases such as divorce, custody and child support and most cases appealed from the District Court, orphans’ courts and certain administrative agencies. Circuit courts also hear domestic violence cases. Each County and the City of Baltimore has a circuit court. Cases may involve juries or sometimes are heard by a judge only.
Appellate Courts – Maryland has two appellate courts: the Court of Appeals, the highest court, and the Court of Special Appeals, the intermediate appellate court. These courts review a trial court’s (District or Circuit Court) actions and decisions in given cases and decide whether the trial judge properly followed the law and legal precedent.
Orphans’ Court – This specialized court handles wills, estates, and other probate matters and limited aspects of guardianship.
COURT-RELATED AGENCIES: Attorney Grievance Commission oversees the conduct of both Maryland lawyers and nonmembers of the Maryland Bar who engage in the practice of law in the State. Board of Law Examiners administers bar examinations to persons seeking to be admitted to the practice of law. Client Protection Fund maintains the integrity and protects the good name of the legal profession. The Fund, supported financially by practicing attorneys, reimburses claimants for losses caused by theft of funds by members of the Maryland Bar, acting either as attorneys or as fiduciaries. The Office of Communications and Public Affairs is responsible for planning, designing, and executing programs to inform and educate the public about the services, programs, and activities of the Judiciary. The Office focuses on developing programs and activities to increase the public’s awareness of the court’s role in the community. Commission on Judicial Disabilities serves the public in a variety of ways. Its primary function is to receive, investigate and hear complaints against members of the Maryland judiciary. It also supplies judicial nominating commissions with confidential information concerning reprimands to or pending charges against those judges seeking nomination to other judicial offices. Mediation and Conflict Resolution Office (MACRO) serves as an alternative dispute resolution (ADR) resource for the state. MACRO advances mediation and other ADR programs to meet local needs and to provide more options for people in conflict. Rules Committee meets regularly to consider proposed amendments and additions to the Maryland Rules of Procedure and submits recommendations for change to the Court of Appeals. State Law Library provides access for the law-related information needs of the judiciary as well as the legal community, government agencies, and the public.
COURT ADMINISTRATION: The Administrative Office of the Courts (AOC) provides administrative services for the Maryland Judiciary. These services include personnel administration, preparation and administration of the Judiciary's budget, planning and research, and information systems. The AOC also provides staff support to the Maryland Judicial Conference and other Judiciary commissions and programs.